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发表于 2021-8-27 13:42:10 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式



《尖端Micro OLED即将到来,瞄准AR/VR显示市场》


Technological advances have given rise to numerous ultra-advanced display technologies that shine in different fields. Micro OLED, known as a fusion of semiconductor and OLED technologies, allows displays to be thinner and more energy saving.Particularly, the application of Micro OLED in AR/VR is highly promising, but what is the difference between this novel technology and the aforementioned Micro LED?

技术的进步使许多超先进的显示技术在不同的领域大放异彩。Micro OLED是半导体和OLED技术的融合,它可以使显示器更薄,更节能。特别是Micro OLED在AR/VR中的应用前景非常广阔,但这种新技术与前面提到的Micro LED有什么区别呢?

Before comparing the two technologies, we should first know what exactly OLED is and whether Micro OLEDs are simply miniatures of OLEDs.

      在比较这两种技术之前,我们首先应该知道OLED到底是什么,以及Micro OLED是否仅仅是OLED的微缩版。

OLED has been developed for a long time. Using mostly organic materials, the technology does not require backlight modules, as each pixel of an OLED display can independently emit a specific color of light and be switched on and off.OLEDs can therefore facilitate the presentation of amazingly deep blacks with excellent contrast and have lower power consumption compared with traditional LEDs and LCDs.


OLEDs像素 (图片来源:shutterstock)

Unlike OLED that has already been used in smartphones and TVs, Micro OLED, despite having only an additional “Micro” in its name and being based on OLED, is actually a more complex technology with a completely different target market,namely the market of AR/VR displays.

与已经在智能手机和电视上使用的OLED不同,Micro OLED是一种更复杂的技术,它是基于OLED的,虽然名称中只有一个额外的“Micro”,但它的目标市场是完全不同的,即AR/VR显示器市场。

A Micro OLED comprises an organic luminescent material sandwiched between two electrodes, where the diode emits light when a current flows through. Subsequently, the required colors are generated through color filters. A Micro OLED light source module is produced by attaching OLEDs to a substrate using vapor deposition. To produce a silicon-based OLED module, for example, OLEDs are attached to a silicon substrate (i.e., semiconductor wafer). In addition to their self-illuminating nature like OLEDs, Micro OLEDs help create thinner, smaller, and more energy-saving panels. Their shorter response time and greater luminous efficacy also enables production of high PPI (pixel per inch) monitors.

Micro OLED包含了夹在两个电极之间的有机发光材料,当电流流过时二极管发光。随后,通过滤光片生成所需的颜色。Micro OLED光源模块是通过使用气相沉积将OLED沉积到衬底上而产生的。例如,为了生产硅基的OLED模块,将OLED沉积到硅衬底(即半导体晶圆)上。除了像OLED一样具有自发光的特性,Micro OLED有助于制造更薄、更小和更节能的面板。它们更短的响应时间和更高的发光效率也使高PPI(每英寸像素)显示器的生产成为可能。

Micro OLED happens to meet the requirements of AR/VR headset screens and mirrors. Despite being developed for years, AR/VR products are subject to problems of motion sickness, low resolution, large size, and costliness due to immature technology. To avoid motion sickness, specifically, panel resolution must be increased from the existing 500 PPI to 2,000 PPI.

Micro OLED恰好满足了AR/VR头显屏幕和镜片的需求。AR/VR产品虽然经过多年的研发,但由于技术不成熟,存在着容易发晕、分辨率低、体积大、价格昂贵等问题。为了避免产生眩晕,屏分辨率必须从现有的500 PPI提高到2000 PPI。

This is where Micro OLED can fit in. Indeed, like its OLED counterpart, Micro OLED is not suitable for large-size displays due to problems of low brightness and uneven aging. However, Micro OLED has a great advantage in the small-sizedisplay market. As the application of AR/VR displays gradually shifts from gaming and military fields to medical, education, and retail scenarios with expanded markets, demand for resolution and input lag avoidance will increase.Under such circumstances, next-generation display technologies with high resolution, high luminance, high contrast, and quick response will be developed. Presently, Micro OLED has been used for military, industrial,medical purposes as well as commercial smart glasses.

这就是Micro OLED能够发挥作用的地方。事实上,与OLED一样,Micro OLED也不适合用于大尺寸显示,因为其存在亮度低和老化不均的问题。然而,Micro OLED在小型显示市场上具有很大的优势。随着AR/VR显示的应用逐渐从游戏、军事领域转移到医疗、教育、零售等领域,市场规模不断扩大,消费者对分辨率和避免显示滞后的要求将会提高。在这种情况下,科研人员将着手开发高分辨率、高亮度、高对比度、快速响应的新一代显示器技术。目前,Micro OLED已经被用于军事、工业、医疗以及商业智能眼镜。

Don’t Confuse Micro OLED with Micro LED, They Are Different Things

不要混淆Micro OLED和Micro LED,它们是不同的东西

When mentioning Micro OLED, Micro LED—another advanced display technology also starting with “Micro”—is often discussed. Although the two technologies both boast ultra-fine pitch, high resolution, high reliability, and short response time, they largely differ from each other from production processes to applications; only a part of their applications are overlapped.

当提到Micro OLED时,另一种以“Micro”开头的先进显示技术——Micro LED——经常被提及。尽管这两种技术都具有超细间距、高分辨率、高可靠性和短响应时间的特点,但它们在生产过程和应用中存在很大差异;其中只有一部分重叠的应用。

A Micro LED is defined as a diode measuring ≤ 75μm without a sapphire substrate, of which the epitaxy process differs from that of Micro OLEDs. Because of its high-density, small-size LED arrays integrated on chips, Micro LED can be widely applied to different fields, including wearables, headset displays, AR/VR displays, and even phototherapy. Moreover, because Micro LEDs are composed of inorganic materials, the components tend to be brighter and more stable than OLEDs.

Micro LED的定义是:在没有蓝宝石衬底的情况下,尺寸≤75μm的二极管,其外延工艺与Micro OLED不同。由于其高密度、小尺寸的LED阵列集成在芯片上,Micro LED可以广泛应用于不同领域,包括可穿戴设备、头显、AR/VR显示器,甚至光疗。此外,由于Micro LED是由无机材料组成的,其组件往往比OLED更明亮、更稳定。

The biggest problems now for Micro LED are how to accurately transfer millions of tiny LEDs to a backplane (i.e., mass transfer) and perform subsequent tests and packaging; the technology is still costly.

Micro LED目前最大的问题是如何准确地将数百万个Micro LED释放到背板上(即巨量转移),并进行后续测试和封装。这项技术的成本仍然很高。

By contrast, the size of a Micro OLED is not limited to 75μm; the size of each pixel is defined during the OLED process. Micro OLED mainly adopts the vapor deposition technique; therefore, how to precisely and evenly deposit organic materials (which are easily affected by oxygen and water ) on the target substrate—along with designs of vacuum coating machines, and fine metal masks—are key process factors.

相比之下,Micro OLED的尺寸不限于75μm;每个像素的大小是在OLED制程中决定的。Micro OLED主要采用气相沉积技术;因此,如何准确、均匀地将易受氧和水影响的有机材料沉积在目标基板上,以及真空镀膜机和精细金属掩膜的设计,这些都是关键的工艺因素。

Numerous suppliers are developing Micro OLED, a technology combining CMOS technology (for IC design) with OLED and using monocrystalline silicon as the active-matrix backplane. As Nikkei Asia reported in March, Apple has asked TSMC, its long-term chip supplier, to co-develop an ultra-advanced Micro OLED display.

许多供应商都在研发Micro OLED,这是一种将CMOS技术(用于集成电路设计)与OLED结合起来并使用单晶硅作为有源矩阵背板的技术。正如Nikkei Asia 3月份报道的那样,苹果已要求其长期芯片供应商台积电(TSMC)共同研发一款超先进的Micro OLED显示。

China and South Korea have never overlooked Micro OLED. Since 2018, the Chinese electronic components producer BOE has worked with its joint venture Kunming BOE to develop Micro OLEDs. An ELEC report indicates that BOE plans to launch a commercial Micro OLED display targeting the AR/VR market in 2Q21, of which the vapor deposition equipment is provided by the South Korean supplier Sunic Systems.

中国和韩国从未忽视过Micro OLED。自2018年以来,中国电子组件生产商京东方(BOE)与其合资企业昆明京东方(Kunming BOE)合作开发Micro OLED。ELEC的一份报告显示,BOE计划在21年第二季度推出针对AR/VR市场的商用Micro OLED显示屏,其中气相沉积设备由韩国供应商Sunic Systems提供。

APS Holdings, a South Korea-based display and semiconductor equipment supplier,revealed in May that the South Korean government has assigned it a Micro OLED display project. APS will work with other companies to develop a pair of 4,000-PPI AR glasses by 2024.

韩国显示和半导体设备供应商APS Holdings今年5月透露,韩国政府已将Micro OLED显示项目指定给该公司。APS将与其他公司合作,在2024年之前开发一副4000 ppi的AR眼镜。

In 2020, the French company Micro OLED announced that it received a growth investment of €8 million from two pan European high-tech investors, Cipio Partners and Ventech, facilitating the development of integrated AR modules.

2020年,法国公司Micro OLED宣布从两家泛欧洲高科技投资者Cipio Partners和Ventech获得800万欧元的持续投资,促进集成AR模块的开发。

The target of Micro OLED is clearly the small-size display market. Despite its narrow application compared with OLED and Micro LED, Micro OLED has become a popular research topic in recent years, and has been sought after by various manufacturers to strengthen their production capacity and satisfy requirements of different fields. Micro OLED will be a crucial driver of the development of AR/VR technologies and human–machine systems in the next decade. In fact,various Micro OLED products were showcased at display exhibitions in 2020; some of them even feature more than 3,000 PPI.

Micro OLED的目标显然是小尺寸显示市场。尽管与OLED和Micro LED相比,Micro OLED的应用范围还很窄,但近年来Micro OLED已经成为了一个热门的研究课题,因其加强生产能力、满足不同领域需求,受到了各厂商的追捧。未来十年,OLED将成为AR/VR技术和人机系统发展的重要驱动力。事实上,在2020年的显示展会上,Micro OLED产品已经展示了各种各样的产品;有些甚至有超过3000个PPI。

By 2024, global Micro display production is expected to reach 50 million units,including AR/VR, smart glasses, headset, and head-up displays.




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